Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered teaching method in which complex real-world problems are used as the vehicle to promote student learning of concepts and principles, as opposed to direct presentation of facts and concepts. In addition to course content, PBL aligns with rules of contextual, constructive, collaborative and self-directed learning. It can also promote the development of critical thinking, problem-solving abilities, and communication skills. PBL allows students sharing their existing knowledge on a problem and at the same time learning new things from each other and identifying their learning gaps that they can still work on. This type of teaching method also provides opportunities to learn how to find and evaluate the quality of research material and gain some presentation skills. As in CBL, teachers in PBL activities play the role of the facilitators, guiding students through the problem to be solved.
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